ANALYSE DES FACTEURS D’ÉCHEC ET DE RÉUSSITE DES PROJETS ORGANISATIONNELS ET MUNICIPAUX D’AMÉNAGEMENT DES SOUS-BASSINS VERSANTS DU PARC NATIONAL HISTORIQUE CITADELLE/SANS-SOUCI/RAMIERS AU COURS DE LA DERNIÈRE DÉCENNIE
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Despite the growing interest in the study of project management, little research has explored the complexity of project success criteria, critical factors of project success and failure, and project management and monitoring tools, even less in a context of management and protection of sub-watersheds. Given the current situation, questions are asked about the contribution of management and monitoring tools to the success of watershed management and protection projects and about the definition of the best means to reduce the factors of failure and increase the success factors of sub-watersheds management projects of the Citadelle/Sans-Souci/Ramiers National Historic Park (PNH-CSSR). Faced with these questions, the main objective of this research is to propose a model to assess the factors of success and failure in the management of organizational and municipal projects for the development and protection of the sub-watersheds of the Citadelle/Sans-Souci/Ramiers National Historic Park (PNH-CSSR). A review of the literature on the success and failure factors of organizational and municipal watershed management or protection projects was carried out. This review highlights the main lines of project management and its main approaches. Also, it highlights the factors of failure and success of projects and watershed management followed by their main approaches. To do this, a mixed (qualitative and quantitative) approach is favored by means of a scientific method of systematic observation, with the use of three (3) data collection methods (direct observation, the survey by self-enumeration and questionnaires assisted by interviewer). The data collected from the two samples (project managers and project beneficiaries) were processed according to the Statistics Canada approach. Indeed, the results revealed that stakeholder satisfaction and the use of a socio-economic development approach for farms and homes in the project area are the two (2) main key success factors of management and protection of sub-watersheds projects. They also revealed new elements in the factors of failure, in particular free breeding, burning practices, illegal extraction of rocks from sub-watersheds, scope of sub-watershed management projects on farms in indirect tenure mode, the rainfall dependence of agroforestry sub-watershed development projects, the divergence of the potentialities and the physical, economic and social characteristics of the PNH-CSSR with the nature of the projects, the use of stakeholder participation as targets or means of implementing decisions taken without them, the scope of projects on subsistence farming, ignorance of environmental protection measures by the populations of the watersheds, and limiting factors related to soil nutrient quality and water resources. In addition, if the use of the Excel planning and design tool and the Benefits Realization, Critical Chain Project Management, Critical Path Method and LEAN approaches have been the most identified with regard to the management and monitoring of these projects, it emerges that the tools and approaches for project management and monitoring are relatively little used and sometimes even unrecognizable in all the development and protection projects of the sub-watersheds studied. This research brings two (2) major contributions. It enriches the theoretical corpus on the critical factors of success and failure of projects, including the use of project management and monitoring tools. Then, it offers project managers a model to assess the success and failure factors in the management of organizational and municipal projects for the development (management) and protection of the sub-watersheds, which model can be adapted to different types of projects depending on the modeling of the factor breakdown structure (FBS).